Chloride is a significant threat to freshwater ecosystems, and as such is addressed in wastewater discharge regulations. Chloride cannot be removed using standard wastewater treatment technology; therefore, chloride that arrives in wastewater passes through treatment plants and enters natural water bodies as treated effluent.
The main goal of this project was to determine if reducing the chloride contribution from water softeners can aid the wastewater utility in meeting wastewater discharge limits.
- Quantify concentration and mass of chloride in residential wastewater as contributed by water softeners.
- Determine to what degree the chloride can be controlled in residential wastewater.
- Establish costs of controlling chloride by modifying or replacing water softeners for higher efficiency of salt usage.