Resource Type: WQRF Study

  • Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect home ion-exchange water softeners may have on the performance of onsite septic tanks.

  • Sustainability Comparison Study

    Assessing Centralized Treatment Upgrades and POU/POE Treatment for Small System Compliance to the SDWA This study examined point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) devices in comparison to improvements to existing centralized systems for Safe Drinking Water Act compliance using a triple bottom line analysis. The study was conducted using data from four very small community water […]

  • Reduction of Chloride to Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Chloride is a significant threat to freshwater ecosystems, and as such is addressed in wastewater discharge regulations. Chloride cannot be removed using standard wastewater treatment technology; therefore, chloride that arrives in wastewater passes through treatment plants and enters natural water bodies as treated effluent. The main goal of this project was to determine if reducing […]

  • Phase 2A Report (Alkalinity, chloride, corrosivity, LSI, nitrate, nitrate-nitrite, orthophosphate, total phosphate, and sulfate):

  • Phase 2B Report (1,4-dioxane, Cr6, PCE, Uranium, radium, calcium, magnesium, radon, strontium): 

    The Water Quality Research Foundation (WQRF) funded the Contaminant Occurrence Level Study (20192020) to investigate the occurrence of drinking water contaminants at levels that may present potential public health risks despite federal regulatory compliance and the occurrence of aesthetic drinking water analytes impacting the taste, color, and odor of drinking water supplied by public drinking […]

  • Emerging Contaminant Consumer Study

    This independent study was performed by researchers from the University of Wisconsin system in June 2021, to gauge the American public’s knowledge of emerging contaminants in drinking water and their interest and willingness to pay for Point-of-Use (POU)/Point-of-Entry (POE) home water filtration devices. POU devices treat drinking water at the point of consumption (e.g., kitchen […]

  • Emerging Contaminant Removal and Microbial Growth in POU Membrane Filtration and Activated Carbon 

    Emerging Contaminant Removal and Microbial Growth in POU Membrane Filtration and Activated Carbon systems are common point-of-use (POU) water filtration systems. They are used to remove contaminants from drinking water, including trace-level emerging contaminants, as the last barrier to protect human health before consumption. 

  • Cost Benefits of Point-of-Use Devices in Reduction of Health Risks

    The goal of this project is to provide an assessment of the cost benefits of point-of-use (POU) water treatment at the tap in terms of protection from contaminants in drinking water. While POU water treatment benefits have been demonstrated, the cost benefit relationship has not been characterized previously. This study is novel in that a holistic approach was used to document individual and population benefits of single and multiple contaminant removal. Both chemical and microbial contaminants were considered. Contamination risks exist in all water supplies no matter how well they are treated. This is because of treatment failures, post-treatment intrusion of microbes and chemicals, and regrowth of pathogenic organisms in the distribution system. The inability of treatment plants to remove all contaminants all of the time, require the use of a final POU treatment barrier to minimize exposure risks.

  • Reduction of Chloride to ​Wastewater Treatment Plants

    The final report of this study is available on Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District’s (MMSD) website. The study can be used as a model approach in areas struggling with chloride discharge. The final conclusions were that on average, softener optimizations could reduce the concentration of chlorides by 27% while replacement with systems meeting 4,000 grains/lb. salt efficiency could reduce the […]

  • Softened Water Benefits Studies

    This study tested deices fed with softened and unsoftened water under controlled laboratory conditions designed to accelerate the waterside scaling in the device and quantify the performance efficiency. The project specifically focused on efficiency improvements in household water heaters from use of softened water, and the subsequent effect on performance of fixtures, such as low-flow […]