Sustainability Comparison Study


Assessing Centralized Treatment Upgrades and POU/POE Treatment for Small System Compliance to the SDWA

This study examined point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) devices in comparison to improvements to existing centralized systems for Safe Drinking Water Act compliance using a triple bottom line analysis. The study was conducted using data from four very small community water systems (serving less than 500 people) from four different USEPA regions in the United States to ground the analysis in the community specific considerations necessary to complete a triple bottom line analysis.

Dr. Emily Kumpel
Dr. Kaycie Lane
Dr. David Reckhow
Dr. John Tobiason